A comparison of pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporarily-associated with SARS-CoV-2 and Kawasaki disease (Jan. 2023) *

Scientific Reports – DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-26832-5

The connection between Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS) and Kawasaki Disease (KD) is not yet fully understood. Using the same national registry, clinical features and outcome of children hospitalized in Germany, and Innsbruck (Austria) were compared. Reported to the registry were 395 PIMS and 69 KD hospitalized patients. Patient age in PIMS cases was higher than in KD cases (median 7 [IQR 4-11] vs. 3 [IQR 1-4] years). A majority of both PIMS and KD patients were male and without comorbidities. PIMS patients more frequently presented with organ dysfunction, with the gastrointestinal (80%), cardiovascular (74%), and respiratory (52%) systems being most commonly affected. By contrast, KD patients more often displayed dermatological (99% vs. 68%) and mucosal changes (94% vs. 64%), plus cervical lymph node swelling (51% vs. 34%). Intensive care admission (48% vs. 19%), pulmonary support (32% vs. 10%), and use of inotropes/vasodilators (28% vs. 3%) were higher among PIMS cases. No patients died. Upon patient discharge, potentially irreversible sequelae-mainly cardiovascular-were reported (7% PIMS vs. 12% KD). Despite differences in age distribution and disease severity, PIMS and KD cases shared many common clinical and prognostic characteristics. This supports the hypothesis that the two entities represent a syndrome continuum.

* This journal article provides analysis of data gleaned from the DGPI registries.